김재현, 두오다(Dhuoda)의 『리베르 마누알리스』(Liber Manualis)
Jae-Hyun Kim, Dhuoda’s Liber Manualis: A Carolingian Woman’s Instruction to Son
In the absence of her husband, Bernard of Septimania, Dhuoda played an
important role -militarily, economically, and socially- in order to keep her
family and realm. After her two sons were captured by King Charles the Bald,
Dhuoda wrote a lengthy letter to her son, William, which was eventually known
as Liber Manualis. This letter is educational, instructive, and pious in its form
and character. In this letter, we have a glimpse of the worldview and religion
of the Carolingian people of the ninth century through the eyes of a woman.
Dhuoda was neither a professional theologian nor a nun. She, however, left
an exceptional sample of writing from that period. Even though she was quite
traditional in interpreting Scripture and the writings of the Fathers, Dhuoda
letters were quite unique. Her writings can be favorably compared to the
writings of dominant male theologians and priests at that time.
Left isolated in the frontier between Spain and France without her husband,
Dhuoda believed that she had as equal a right and accessibility to the Divine
grace as male religious leaders. Even though she had to eat the crums from the
master’s table, she was convinced that God’s grace equally belonged to her. In
Liber Manualis, Dhuoda taught that William should put the right of his father
Bernard before that of his royal master. In serving masters and lords, she
advised that William should always follow his own conscience and proper
counseling. As a lay female leader, Dhuoda compared in depth the seven
virtues and eight blessings. As secular and spiritual realms go together, virtue
and vice are mingled together in daily life. Dhuoda was very active and
practical in interpreting and applying the Scriptural passages to daily life. It is
not so easy to find such practicality among the ninth century male theologians.
In this sense, Dhuoda’s book provides a useful lens and perspective to
understand ninth century Carolingian religion and society. Although she did not
articulate any systematic theology and terminology, Dhuoda brought up routine
issues of society and religion from female perspective. In this sense, I would
ascertain that Dhuoda was a female theologian who offered a fresh interpretation
of the society and religion of her time.
Key Words : Dhuoda, William, Virtue, Encheiridion, Liber Manualis, Bernard, God